バーチャルホスト設定(Apache)

最終更新日: 2017.05.24

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■概要

現在運用中のWebサーバーで、もうひとつWebサイトを運用する。
ここでは、WebサーバーApacheのバーチャルホスト機能を使用して、以下に示す条件で2つのWebサイトを運用できるようにする。

・メインWebサイトはhttp://centossrv.jp/
・追加するWebサイトはhttp://virtual.com/
・メインWebサイトのドキュメントルートは/var/www/html/centossrv.jp
・追加するWebサイトのドキュメントルートは/var/www/html/virtual.com
・メインWebサイトへのアクセスログは/var/log/httpd/access_log、/var/log/httpd/error_logに記録する
・追加するWebサイトへのアクセスログは/var/log/httpd/virtual.com-access_log、/var/log/httpd/virtual.com-error_logに記録する


■ドメイン名取得

追加するWebサイトのドメイン名を取得する。⇒ドメイン名取得(独自ドメイン編)または、ドメイン名取得(ieServer.Net編)を参照

■バーチャルホスト設定

【CentOS7の場合】
[root@centos ~]# mkdir /var/www/html/virtual.com ← バーチャルホスト用ドキュメントルートディレクトリ作成

[root@centos ~]# vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/virtualhost-00.conf ← 未定義ホスト用バーチャルホスト設定ファイル作成
※バーチャルホスト未定義ホスト名でアクセス時にアクセスを拒否する
<VirtualHost _default_:80>
    ServerName any
    <Location />
        Require all denied
    </Location>
</VirtualHost>

[root@centos ~]# vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/virtualhost-centossrv.jp.conf ← メインホスト用バーチャルホスト設定ファイル作成
<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName centossrv.jp
    DocumentRoot /var/www/html/centossrv.jp
</VirtualHost>

[root@centos ~]# vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/virtualhost-virtual.com.conf ← 追加ホスト用バーチャルホスト設定ファイル作成
<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName virtual.com
    DocumentRoot /var/www/html/virtual.com
    ErrorLog logs/virtual.com-error_log
    CustomLog logs/virtual.com-access_log combined env=!no_log
</VirtualHost>

【CentOS6の場合】
[root@centos ~]# mkdir /var/www/html/virtual.com ← バーチャルホスト用ドキュメントルートディレクトリ作成

[root@centos ~]# vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf ← Apache設定ファイル編集
#
# ServerName gives the name and port that the server uses to identify itself.
# This can often be determined automatically, but we recommend you specify
# it explicitly to prevent problems during startup.
#
# If this is not set to valid DNS name for your host, server-generated
# redirections will not work.  See also the UseCanonicalName directive.
#
# If your host doesn't have a registered DNS name, enter its IP address here.
# You will have to access it by its address anyway, and this will make
# redirections work in a sensible way.
#
#ServerName centossrv.jp:80 ← 行頭に#を追加してコメントアウト

#
# Use name-based virtual hosting.
#
NameVirtualHost *:80 ← コメント解除(バーチャルホスト有効化)
#
# NOTE: NameVirtualHost cannot be used without a port specifier
# (e.g. :80) if mod_ssl is being used, due to the nature of the
# SSL protocol.
#

[root@centos ~]# vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/virtualhost-00.conf ← 未定義ホスト用バーチャルホスト設定ファイル作成
※バーチャルホスト未定義ホスト名でアクセス時にアクセスを拒否する
<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName any
    <Location />
        Order deny,allow
        Deny from all
    </Location>
</VirtualHost>

[root@centos ~]# vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/virtualhost-centossrv.jp.conf ← メインホスト用バーチャルホスト設定ファイル作成
<VirtualHost _default_:80>
    ServerName centossrv.jp
    DocumentRoot /var/www/html/centossrv.jp
</VirtualHost>

[root@centos ~]# vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/virtualhost-virtual.com.conf ← 追加ホスト用バーチャルホスト設定ファイル作成
<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName virtual.com
    DocumentRoot /var/www/html/virtual.com
    ErrorLog logs/virtual.com-error_log
    CustomLog logs/virtual.com-access_log combined env=!no_log
</VirtualHost>

■Webサーバー再起動

[root@centos ~]# systemctl restart httpd ← Webサーバー再起移動※CentOS7の場合

[root@centos ~]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart ← Webサーバー再起移動※CentOS6の場合


■バーチャルホスト確認

外部からバーチャルホストにアクセスできるか確認する。

[root@centos ~]# echo test >> /var/www/html/virtual.com/index.html ← テストページ作成

Free Monitoring Test Toolsの「Select Test Type」欄で「Website Test」を選択、「Enter Test Target」欄にサーバー名(例:http://virtual.com)を入力して「Perform Test」ボタンを押下する。

以下のような結果が表示されればOK
Website test results

URL tested:	http://virtual.com
Test performed from:	New York, NY
Test performed at:	2017-04-28 15:28:14 (GMT +00:00)
Resolved As:	XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX
Status:	OK ← OKを確認
Response Time:	0.786 sec
DNS:	0.393 sec
Connect:	0.185 sec
Redirect:	0.000 sec
First byte:	0.208 sec
Last byte:	0.000 sec
Size:	5 bytes

[root@centos ~]# rm -f /var/www/html/virtual.com/index.html ← テストページ削除

■暗号化通信用バーチャルホスト設定Webサーバー間通信内容暗号化を導入している場合のみ

(1)サーバー証明書取得
追加ホストについて、Webサーバー間通信内容暗号化(Apache+mod_SSL+Certbot)の「■サーバー証明書取得」を実施。

(2)バーチャルホスト設定
[root@centos ~]# vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/virtualhost-centossrv.jp.conf ← メインホスト用バーチャルホスト設定ファイル編集
<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName centossrv.jp
    DocumentRoot /var/www/html/centossrv.jp
</VirtualHost>
/etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.confの<VirtualHost _default_:443>〜</VirtualHost>をコピーしてここに貼り付ける
<VirtualHost *:443> ← *に変更

DocumentRoot "/var/www/html/centossrv.com" ← メインホスト用ドキュメントルートを指定
ServerName centossrv.jp:443 ← メインホストサーバー名を指定

# Use separate log files for the SSL virtual host; note that LogLevel
# is not inherited from httpd.conf.
ErrorLog logs/error_log
CustomLog logs/access_log combined env=!no_log
LogLevel warn

#   SSL Engine Switch:
#   Enable/Disable SSL for this virtual host.
SSLEngine on

#   SSL Protocol support:
# List the enable protocol levels with which clients will be able to
# connect.  Disable SSLv2 access by default:
SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3

#   SSL Cipher Suite:
#   List the ciphers that the client is permitted to negotiate.
#   See the mod_ssl documentation for a complete list.
SSLCipherSuite HIGH:MEDIUM:!aNULL:!MD5:!SEED:!IDEA:!RC4

#   Speed-optimized SSL Cipher configuration:
#   If speed is your main concern (on busy HTTPS servers e.g.),
#   you might want to force clients to specific, performance
#   optimized ciphers. In this case, prepend those ciphers
#   to the SSLCipherSuite list, and enable SSLHonorCipherOrder.
#   Caveat: by giving precedence to RC4-SHA and AES128-SHA
#   (as in the example below), most connections will no longer
#   have perfect forward secrecy - if the server's key is
#   compromised, captures of past or future traffic must be
#   considered compromised, too.
SSLCipherSuite ECDH+AESGCM:DH+AESGCM:ECDH+AES256:DH+AES256:ECDH+AES128:DH+AES:RSA+AESGCM:RSA+AES:!aNULL:!MD5:!DSS
SSLHonorCipherOrder on 

#   Server Certificate:
# Point SSLCertificateFile at a PEM encoded certificate.  If
# the certificate is encrypted, then you will be prompted for a
# pass phrase.  Note that a kill -HUP will prompt again.  A new
# certificate can be generated using the genkey(1) command.
SSLCertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/centossrv.com/cert.pem

#   Server Private Key:
#   If the key is not combined with the certificate, use this
#   directive to point at the key file.  Keep in mind that if
#   you've both a RSA and a DSA private key you can configure
#   both in parallel (to also allow the use of DSA ciphers, etc.)
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/centossrv.com/privkey.pem

#   Server Certificate Chain:
#   Point SSLCertificateChainFile at a file containing the
#   concatenation of PEM encoded CA certificates which form the
#   certificate chain for the server certificate. Alternatively
#   the referenced file can be the same as SSLCertificateFile
#   when the CA certificates are directly appended to the server
#   certificate for convinience.
SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/centossrv.com/chain.pem

#   Certificate Authority (CA):
#   Set the CA certificate verification path where to find CA
#   certificates for client authentication or alternatively one
#   huge file containing all of them (file must be PEM encoded)
#SSLCACertificateFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt
#SSLCACertificateFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca.pem

#   Client Authentication (Type):
#   Client certificate verification type and depth.  Types are
#   none, optional, require and optional_no_ca.  Depth is a
#   number which specifies how deeply to verify the certificate
#   issuer chain before deciding the certificate is not valid.
#SSLVerifyClient require
#SSLVerifyDepth  10

#   Access Control:
#   With SSLRequire you can do per-directory access control based
#   on arbitrary complex boolean expressions containing server
#   variable checks and other lookup directives.  The syntax is a
#   mixture between C and Perl.  See the mod_ssl documentation
#   for more details.
#<Location />
#SSLRequire (    %{SSL_CIPHER} !~ m/^(EXP|NULL)/ \
#            and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_O} eq "Snake Oil, Ltd." \
#            and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OU} in {"Staff", "CA", "Dev"} \
#            and %{TIME_WDAY} >= 1 and %{TIME_WDAY} <= 5 \
#            and %{TIME_HOUR} >= 8 and %{TIME_HOUR} <= 20       ) \
#           or %{REMOTE_ADDR} =~ m/^192\.76\.162\.[0-9]+$/
#</Location>

#   SSL Engine Options:
#   Set various options for the SSL engine.
#   o FakeBasicAuth:
#     Translate the client X.509 into a Basic Authorisation.  This means that
#     the standard Auth/DBMAuth methods can be used for access control.  The
#     user name is the `one line' version of the client's X.509 certificate.
#     Note that no password is obtained from the user. Every entry in the user
#     file needs this password: `xxj31ZMTZzkVA'.
#   o ExportCertData:
#     This exports two additional environment variables: SSL_CLIENT_CERT and
#     SSL_SERVER_CERT. These contain the PEM-encoded certificates of the
#     server (always existing) and the client (only existing when client
#     authentication is used). This can be used to import the certificates
#     into CGI scripts.
#   o StdEnvVars:
#     This exports the standard SSL/TLS related `SSL_*' environment variables.
#     Per default this exportation is switched off for performance reasons,
#     because the extraction step is an expensive operation and is usually
#     useless for serving static content. So one usually enables the
#     exportation for CGI and SSI requests only.
#   o StrictRequire:
#     This denies access when "SSLRequireSSL" or "SSLRequire" applied even
#     under a "Satisfy any" situation, i.e. when it applies access is denied
#     and no other module can change it.
#   o OptRenegotiate:
#     This enables optimized SSL connection renegotiation handling when SSL
#     directives are used in per-directory context. 
#SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth +ExportCertData +StrictRequire
<Files ~ "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php3?)$">
    SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
</Files>
<Directory "/var/www/cgi-bin">
    SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
</Directory>

#   SSL Protocol Adjustments:
#   The safe and default but still SSL/TLS standard compliant shutdown
#   approach is that mod_ssl sends the close notify alert but doesn't wait for
#   the close notify alert from client. When you need a different shutdown
#   approach you can use one of the following variables:
#   o ssl-unclean-shutdown:
#     This forces an unclean shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. no
#     SSL close notify alert is send or allowed to received.  This violates
#     the SSL/TLS standard but is needed for some brain-dead browsers. Use
#     this when you receive I/O errors because of the standard approach where
#     mod_ssl sends the close notify alert.
#   o ssl-accurate-shutdown:
#     This forces an accurate shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. a
#     SSL close notify alert is send and mod_ssl waits for the close notify
#     alert of the client. This is 100% SSL/TLS standard compliant, but in
#     practice often causes hanging connections with brain-dead browsers. Use
#     this only for browsers where you know that their SSL implementation
#     works correctly. 
#   Notice: Most problems of broken clients are also related to the HTTP
#   keep-alive facility, so you usually additionally want to disable
#   keep-alive for those clients, too. Use variable "nokeepalive" for this.
#   Similarly, one has to force some clients to use HTTP/1.0 to workaround
#   their broken HTTP/1.1 implementation. Use variables "downgrade-1.0" and
#   "force-response-1.0" for this.
BrowserMatch "MSIE [2-5]" \
         nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
         downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0

#   Per-Server Logging:
#   The home of a custom SSL log file. Use this when you want a
#   compact non-error SSL logfile on a virtual host basis.
CustomLog logs/ssl_request_log \
          "%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x \"%r\" %b"
Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15768000"
</VirtualHost>

[root@centos ~]# vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/virtualhost-virtual.com.conf ← 追加ホスト用バーチャルホスト設定ファイル編集
<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName virtual.com
    DocumentRoot /var/www/html/virtual.com
    ErrorLog logs/virtual.com-error_log
    CustomLog logs/virtual.com-access_log combined env=!no_log
</VirtualHost>
/etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.confの<VirtualHost _default_:443>〜</VirtualHost>をコピーしてここに貼り付けて下記のみ修正
<VirtualHost *:443> ← *に変更
DocumentRoot "/var/www/html/virtual.com" ← 追加ホスト用ドキュメントルートを指定
ServerName virtual.com:443 ← 追加ホストサーバー名を指定
ErrorLog logs/virtual.com-error_log ←  ← 追加ホスト用エラーログファイル名を指定
CustomLog logs/virtual.com-access_log combined env=!no_log ←  ← 追加ホスト用アクセスログファイル名を指定
SSLCertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/virtual.com/cert.pem ← 追加ホスト用公開鍵を指定
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/virtual.com/privkey.pem ← 追加ホスト用秘密鍵を指定
SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/virtual.com/chain.pem ← 追加ホスト用中間証明書を指定

[root@centos ~]# vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf ← ssl.conf編集
−−削除(ここから)−−
<VirtualHost _default_:443>
・
・
・
</VirtualHost>
−−削除(ここまで)−−

■Webサーバー再起動

[root@centos ~]# systemctl restart httpd ← Webサーバー再起移動※CentOS7の場合

[root@centos ~]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart ← Webサーバー再起移動※CentOS6の場合

■暗号化通信用バーチャルホスト確認Webサーバー間通信内容暗号化を導入している場合のみ

外部からバーチャルホストにHTTPSでアクセスできるか確認する。

[root@centos ~]# echo test >> /var/www/html/virtual.com/index.html ← テストページ作成

Free Monitoring Test Toolsの「Select Test Type」欄で「Website Test」を選択、「Enter Test Target」欄にサーバー名(例https://virtual.com)を入力して「Perform Test」ボタンを押下する。

以下のような結果が表示されればOK
Website test results

URL tested:	https://virtual.com
Test performed from:	New York, NY
Test performed at:	2017-04-28 15:28:14 (GMT +00:00)
Resolved As:	XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX
Status:	OK ← OKを確認
Response Time:	0.786 sec
DNS:	0.393 sec
Connect:	0.185 sec
Redirect:	0.000 sec
First byte:	0.208 sec
Last byte:	0.000 sec
Size:	5 bytes

[root@centos ~]# rm -f /var/www/html/virtual.com/index.html ← テストページ削除

■内部向けDNSサーバーへドメイン名反映

DNSサーバー構築(BIND)を参考に、追加したWebサイトのドメイン名(virtual.com)の正引きゾーンデータベースを作成、named.confへ作成した正引きゾーンデータベース情報を追加して、DNSサーバーへ反映する。

これで、内部からも、追加したWebサイトへドメイン名(virtual.com)でアクセスできるようになる。







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